The symbiosis of machine and human intelligence
Industry 4.0 concept as a continued developing of western tradition of industrial manufacturing suggests establishment of large amount of informational technologies into industrial manufacturing and increase of its quality. The term has appeared in 2011 on one of industrial exhibition in Hannover, it was picked up – and become a synonym of The Fourth Industrial Revolution, thus in this case the word «evolution» is more relevant: sudden, quality productive jump have not appeared during this process.
Leading manufacturers of software have not stood by, however they are usually trying to make a marketing fetish out of Industry 4.0, monopolize the market, adept it to their own needs and inflict their approaches and standards. Nevertheless, The Fourth Industrial Revolution creates either weak and unsustainable decisions or breakthrough and innovative products.
Developing Lean Manufacturing ideas, enterprises are looking to develop production of personalized mass production under Agile`s principals. The aim, the same to Third Industrial Revolution – to join effectiveness with productivity of a straight-line flow method and piece-production approach, to move consumption to the next level offering the most personalized set of variants, colours, shapes and opportunities with affectivity of mass production at the same time.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution suggests connection of disparate systems and CNC equipment in one interlinked mechanism. The main task facing the enterprise is automation of every process and stages of manufacturing: designing, change management, creating of virtual prototype of a product, remote changeover of CNC equipment with quick equipment change which was tuned outside the working area. Quick and automated calculation, with giving a list of needed components, its number and further supply control, is necessary. Also monitoring of products` movement from storage to customer, and control of conditions of use and utilization are very important. The last requirements have to provide existing level of control or exceed it for products that are particularly responsible or dangerous.
«Theory is when you know everything but nothing works. Practice is when everything works but no one knows why. In our lab theory and practice are combined: nothing works and no one knows why.» (Albert Einstein)
The huge amount of domestic enterprises and corporations are desiring of maximal effectiveness and clear business. Tulatochmash Stock Company is not an exception. Talking about it, it can be declared that this enterprise is modern and dynamically developing one, headed with people of progressive views on business on managing of enterprise or holding.
«Tulatochmash» is one of leading constructing and manufacturing center of Tula, working on designing, producing, testing and complex processing of wide range of military products. The enterprise has modern technical equipment, belongs to holding company «High Precision Systems» and State Corporation Rostec and is a member of Russian Engineering Union.
In 2017 the establishment of automate systems of manufacture preparation (PDM/PLM, CAPP, CAD, CAM) and software and hardware system of machines monitoring with CNC.
Right on the final stage of enterprise`s automation the necessity of heritability information, which caused during preparation stage of manufacture, has appeared. It needed to create not just single corporative informational system, but to join in one digital system material objects and flows with virtual.
Tulatochmash was familiar with the problem of contradiction of objects in accounting system (accountant`s one more often) and technical data, creating during manufacture preparation. Created item in a specification did not imply ease of its purchase and accounting, accounting data did not always correspond to technically competent description that could lead to incorrect assessment of residue, deficit, procurement prices, applicability etc.
So one of key tasks of the project on Tulatochmash is realization of complex`s inside compatibility which is created on several platforms, equipment and people. Digital copy of real objects must be equal in different systems, equally identified in different functional spheres with different features and indications at the same time. Functions of real object must be repeated by digital twin.
As a result it will allow to collect information about all processes and consider that sphere of enterprise activity in which it is generated. Due to collecting, analysis and visualization of all information, solutions based on valuable input data can be made for a full, accurate and actual evaluation of situation. Also an opportunity of replacing people in implementing of routine and labor-intensive job is an important point.
«Physicist aspires to keep things easy, while poet aspires to keep things complicated». (Lev Landau)
An important factor is necessity to use only domestic soft, as Tulatochmash became the goal of Western sanctions, because of its products effectiveness. Import substitution in these industries has no alternatives.
Despite apocalypse`s ambassadors, who are usually interested in lobbying of import IT-products on Russian market, domestic designers look quite competitive due to cost of offering solutions, speed of responding to business needs and realization of modern concepts. Certainly, there is a lag from flagman, especially in CAD/CAM/CAE, but to be honest, functionality of top products are not often required even by those enterprises which can afford it. There are different reasons for it: inertia, traditions, difficulties with employees retraining and design peculiarities of product. Another thing is important – the enterprise is able to achieve maximum results without import systems and with less costs.
«I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics». (Richard Phillips Feynman)
If you take a look at annual production plan of Tulatochmash plant, with no attention to numbers in column “Amount”, you may decide the plant produces single products. They also have a long list of high-tech products with multilevel components` hierarchy, requiring detailed track and trace from source materials to ready product.
CSoft company`s solution TechnologiCS system has become a base for co-operation between originally unconnected parts.
Input data comes to TechnologiCS from system of manufacturing preparation, undergoes automate verification, judges with accounting system. Thereafter it lets to realize end-to-end product`s manufacturing traceability, without changes in processes of departments which are working in account system. What is more it lets to provide the necessary support of manufacturing on time.
Realization of project on TechnologiCS establishment allowed to make decentralization of managerial decisions and delegate some of them to lower levels.
Creating and accounting of industrial offer were traced to one form, where planner chose one existing commercial (sales) order specifying positions and their numbers. The system automatically downloads active (verified) specifications and techprocesses for all parts and components of all positions need for manufacturing in this period.
Launch and release date estimates basing on intended release date, composition of data, indenture and manufacturing process, data about uncompleted manufacturing, rests in a warehouse, preparing cycles and production supply.
«Fool tidies up, a genius rules over chaos» (Albert Einstein)
Actually, accounting of machine work load and optimal batch launch produces at the stage of accounting of industrial offer. Surprisingly, this is the place where huge amount of systems with sophisticated algorithms stumble.
At the modern stage of technological progress and modern level of enterprises` development, system of such grade cannot work without the human help. Sooner or later, participation of experts is necessary to control or correct things, especially in emergency situations. So TechnologiCS gives to planner an opportunity of manual correction at each stage of accounting (change the launch date, reassignment from one unit to another, change amount of batches with recalculation of machine work load and launch and release dates etc). TechnologiCS checks these manual corrections and if it leads to any mistakes the system will alarm.
Working process is based equally in case of defect in manufacturing or equipment breaking out, analysis of standard-settings and optimization of manufacturing program. TechnologiCS does not try to make decisions instead of human – it alarms about deviation and faults, give specialists all necessary information for making decision, do calculations for customers` tasks. All decisions are made by user anyway. That symbiosis of machine and human intelligence gives the most effective result.
When all calculations are checked, manufacturing plan become available to the planned-distributive offices and is loaded to employees` terminals which are established right on the machines.
Further manufacturing control is performing by masters and the planned-distributive offices. If any necessity happens the task ratchets up to planned-dispatching office.
There are configurable dashboards and special markers for working with manufacturing plan in TechnologiCS.
Thus, thanks to consolidation of disparate information from different systems, realization of planning and management of manufacturing through TechnologiCS, it becomes possible to block the chain of all manufacturing processes.
Nowadays, separate production Tulatochmash Stock Company had finished a pilot project, its replication on main manufacturing has started.
I would like to point out that all the pilot project was realized in two months. It would not be possible without enterprises` highly skilled team, permanent participation of IT-service and manufacturing department`s specialists.
Tulatochmash Stock Company`s experience shows that with clear and balanced aims position, quality inside expertise of offering solutions and participation in system`s establishment of enterprise`s specialists, formation of digital manufacturing can be realized in reasonable time and costs.